Tower Bridge. Тауэрский мост
This bridge was built in 1894 and it is still in daily use even though the traffic in and out of the London wharves has increased to an extraordinary extent during the course of the 20th century.
Even today Tower Bridge regulates a large part of the impressive traffic of the Port of London. Due to a special mechanism, the main traffic-way consisting of two parts fixed to two hinges at the ends can be lifted up. In this way, the entrance and departure of extremely large vessels is possible, and it allows them to reach the Pool of London.
Nowadays the pedestrian path is closed. This footpath crossing which used to be allowed was by the upper bridge which connected the top of each tower, situated at a height of 142 feet above the waters of the famous Thames.
Tower Bridge commands wide and magnificent views of both the city and the river. After Tower Bridge, the wharves of London extend until Tilbury. The gigantic port of this city, which has one of the heaviest movements of ocean-going traffic in the entire world, occupies practically the whole bank of the Thames from Teddington. It is virtually impossible to get a complete idea of its colossal extention. In fact it is one wharf after another, apparently continuing endlessly.
There is one way to form a closer idea of the grandiosity of this port: to view it from Tower Bridge on a clear day.
Этот мост построен в 1894 году, и он до сих пор в обиходе, хотя входящий и исходящий трафик к лондонской пристани возрос до чрезвычайной степени в ходе двадцатого столетия.
Даже сегодня Тауэрский мост регулирует большую часть впечатляющего движения к лондонскому порту. Благодаря специальному механизму основные дорожно-транспортные пути, состоящие из двух частей крепятся к 2 петлям на концах и могут быть подняты вверх. Таким образом, въезд и выезд очень больших судов возможен, и позволяет им достичь Пулла в Лондоне.
В настоящее время пешеходной путь закрыт. Этот пешеходный переход, который ранее был разрешен, соединял верхние части каждой башни, и был расположен на высоте 142 метров над водами знаменитой Темзы.
С Тауэрского моста открывается широкий и великолепный вид как на город, так и реку. После Тауэрского моста верфи Лондона простираются аж до Тилбери. Гигантский порт этого города, который имеет одно из самых напряженных движений океанских судов во всем мире, занимает почти всю Темзу от Теддингтона. Практически невозможно получить полное представление о его колоссальном расширении. На самом деле это один за другим причалы, которые продолжаются до бесконечности.
Существует один способ формирования представления о грандиозности этого порта: увидеть его из Тауэрского моста в ясный день.
If you make a list of the most beautiful sights in London, Tower Bridge will surely be in the top ten. Located in the historical center of London, this construction is one of the places that tourists must visit. And it is not surprising, because this magnificent bridge conveys the spirit of Britain, a country in which centuries-old traditions are intertwined with vital necessity through an elegant solution.
By the way, transport problems became the reason for the construction of the bridge: due to the growing economy, numerous traffic jams appeared at the end of the 19th century, which prevented the movement of horse-drawn carriages and pedestrians, as well as numerous ships. Parliament decided that the capital needed another bridge that would connect the left and right banks of the Thames and harmoniously fit into the historical center of London.
In 1876, a competition was announced in which about 50 works took part, they were considered for several years. In the end, in 1884, the project by Horace Jones, the chief architect of the city, won. The construction of the bridge began in 1886, the work was carried out for 8 years. Horace Jones died a year after the start of work and engineer John Wolf-Berry began to supervise the construction of the grandiose structure, which was completed in 1894.
Now residents of Britain and tourists from all over the world enjoy the view of this bridge, made in the Gothic style. Tower Bridge has two towers connected by walkways on which pedestrians move. Since 1982, these passages have housed a museum and an observation deck. Also, the bridge is equipped with lifting bascules, these are two roadbeds that can rise so that ships pass under the bridge.
Tower Bridge combines solemn beauty, practicality, and elegance. Therefore, it is one of the hallmarks of London, along with Big Ben and Buckingham Palace.
Если вы составите список самых красивых достопримечательностей Лондона, то Тауэрский мост наверняка войдет в первую десятку. Находясь в историческом центре Лондона, это сооружение относится к числу мест, обязательно посещаемых туристами. И не удивительно, ведь этот величественный мост передает дух Британии, страны, в которой вековые традиции переплетаются с жизненной необходимостью через элегантное решение.
Между прочим, причиной строительства моста стали транспортные проблемы: из-за растущей экономики в конце 19 века возникали многочисленные пробки, что мешало двигаться как конным экипажам и пешеходам, так и многочисленным судам. Парламент решил, что столице был нужен еще один мост, который соединит левый и правый берег Темзы и гармонично впишется в исторический центр Лондона.
В 1876 году был объявлен конкурс, в котором приняли участие около 50 работ, которые рассматривались в течение нескольких лет. В конце концов, в 1884 году победил проект Горация Джонса, главного архитектора города. Строительство моста началось в 1886 году, работы велись в течение 8 лет. Гораций Джонс умер через год после начала работ, и инженер Джон Вольф-Берри начал руководить строительством грандиозного сооружения, которое было завершено в 1894 году.
Теперь жители Британии и туристы со всего мира наслаждаются видом этого моста, выполненного в готическом стиле. Тауэрский мост имеет две башни, соединенные переходами, по которым движутся пешеходы. С 1982 года в этих галереях размещаются музей и смотровая площадка. Также мост оснащен подъемными крыльями, это две дорожные полосы, которые могут подниматься так, чтобы корабли проходили под мостом.
Тауэрский мост сочетает в себе торжественную красоту, практичность и элегантность. Поэтому он является одной из визитных карточек Лондона наряду с Биг Беном и Букингемским дворцом.
Probably one of the most famous bridges of Great Britain is Tower Bridge in the city of London. Its unusual appearance makes it easily recognizable: on the impressive river bents there are two towers in the Gothic style, which are connected by bascule spans and walkways.
Tower Bridge is a bascule bridge, and it’s also the lowest constructed overpass above the River Thames – these are the main features that distinguish it from the other alike erections. The bridge got its name due to the neighborhood with the Tower, which is located on the north side.
Over the years, several bridges were built, but the problems with the traffic flow did not decrease. Soon there was established a committee that studied dozens of projects and only in 1884, the project plan of John Wolfe Barry and Horace Jones was approved.
More than 400 workers during 8 years worked on the construction of the bridge. The opening of the engineering structure was on June 30 in 1894. Prince of Wales Edward and his wife Princess Alexandra were present at the grand event.
The bridge was made in the Gothic style but with a number of innovative developments. For example, thanks to the hydraulic system, only a couple of minutes are enough to ensure a free passage to the floating ship. Until 1974, the bridge was lifted because of the operation of steam engines, in the furnaces of which coal was burned that brought the pumps in operation. They pumped water into reservoirs, storing energy. However, the progress did not stand still, and the whole mechanism was replaced by an electro-hydraulic system that significantly saved time and costs. Due to this design the bridge was raised by necessity but not to the schedule.
Time passed, and over the years Tower Bridge along with Big Ben becomes a real symbol and one of the main attractions of London. All metal structures are painted in the colors of the national flag.
To date, Tower Bridge is one of the most visited points of interest of England. It is an honor for many tourists coming to London to make a walk along the legendary structure, especially since many hotels in London direct to very informative and complex excursions around the city.
Information for visitors
Address: Tower Bridge Road, London SE1 2UP, United Kingdom
Walk on the Tower Bridge you can:
|Ticket||At the cashbox||Online|
|Children (from 5 to 15 years)||£4,20||£3,80|
|Children under 5 years||free|
How to get there
The nearest metro station is Tower Hill (Circle and District lines). You can also reach from the Tower Pier.
London. Sights of London / Достопримечательности Лондона
St. Paul’s Cathedral is in the centre of London and is considered to be an architectural masterpiece.
After the Great Fire the City had to be built again. The commission of six architects was organized for the rebuilding and Sir Christopher Wren was the most talented of them. This architect drew a plan which greatly determined the look of today’s London though it was not realized in every detail. It was forbidden to build wooden houses in the City of London.
St. Paul’s Cathedral was the greatest work of Sir Christopher Wren. It is one of the largest churches in the world. Sir Wren was building the Cathedral for 35 years, completed it in 1711, and his aim was to build a church that could rival the great St. Peter Basilica in Rome. St. Paul was built of white stone as well as many other buildings in the City of London. But smoke and soot made the stones black and only the columns and edges were washed by the rain and remained white. That is how the building got its peculiar white-and-black look.
On top of St. Paul’s Cathedral is a high dome, which contains the Whispering Gallery, where whisper can be heard at a great distance.
Fleet street is famous all over the world as the centre of British news services.
Barbican is a district of the City of London. Nowadays Barbican is one of the most beautiful districts of London. It is also famous for the Barbican Centre. The Barbican Centre is an enormous complex which contains two theatres (the Royal Shakespeare Company and the London Symphony Orchestra), an art gallery, three cinemas, two restaurants and two exhibition halls.
The City of Westminster
Westminster area is also called the City of Westminster. It is the most important part of London, where Parliament and most government offices are located.
Westminster Abbey is regarded as the centre of this area. They say. the City was founded here near the monastery as far back as the 7th century.
In the 11th century King Edward the Confessor decided to build a great abbey church there. It was a monastery for a long time.
William the Conqueror was crowned there and since then many kings and queens of England followed this tradition. There is the ancient Coronation Chair beneath which there is the Stone of Scone (the ancient Scottish Coronation Throne that was brought to England by King Edward I as a sign of defeat of Scotland.
Many English kings and queens and other famous statesmen, writers, scientists are buried in Westminster Abbey. Among them there are two queens rivals Elizabeth I Tudor and Mary Stuart. Oliver Cromwell. Charles Dickens. Rudyard Kipling, Isaac Newton and Charles Darwin. It is famous for the Poet’s Corner, where most popular writers (Kipling. Chaucer, Hardy, Dickens), poets and musicians are buried.
Opposite Westminster Abbey there are the Houses of Parliament, which are often called the Palace of Westminster (or Westminster Palace). Westminster Palace was built in medieval days. It was a place of royal dwelling as early as the 11th century, which later became the meeting place of Parliament. It was destroyed many times by fire, and the foundation stone of the new Houses of Parliament was laid in 1840.
It is a beautiful building with two towers. In the north part of the Houses there is Victoria Tower. It is 104 metres high and the national flag is hoisted on its top when the Parliament is sitting. In the southern part of the building there is its clock tower, St. Stephen’s Tower with the famous Big Ben.
St. Stephen’s Tower is more often called Big Ben, which is actually the name of the largest bell on the clock tower and a part of the Great Clock of Westminster. Its official name is the Great Bell of Westminster. It is 13.5 tons. The origin of the name belongs to Sir Benjamin Hall, the chief Commissioner of Works, when the Houses of Parliament were rebuilt in 1850. Sir Benjamin Hall was a very tall and stout man. His nickname was «Big Ben».
Parliament Square in front of the Palace of Westminster is famous for the monuments to great British statesmen. There is a monument to Oliver Cromwell and a monument to Winston Churchill.
Whitehall, the governmental street, begins from Parliament Square. Most British ministries like the Admiralty and official residences are situated here. The British Government itself is often called Whitehall.
Downing Street is very small and is usually associated with Whitehall. Downing Street (House 10) is the official residence of British prime ministers.
Down the Whitehall Street there is not less popular street called the Mall, the straightest and the broadest street in the central part of London.
Buckingham Palace. Trafalgar Square
Buckingham Palace (the Palace) is the official London residence of the Queen and the Royal family. When the Queen is at the residence the flag is flying on top of Buckingham Palace. It was a country residence of the Duke of Buckingham. But in the 19th century it was rebuilt for King George. The square in front of the Palace is decorated with Victoria Memorial built in 1911.
The Changing of the Rоуаl Guard is the ceremony that you can see in front of Buckingham Palace. It dates back to the 17th century. The ceremony takes place every morning at 11.30 and lasts for 30 minutes. It is a real theatrical performance. The Queen’s Guards wear traditional uniforms and tall black fur caps called «busbies».
Trafalgar Square is the geographical centre of the British capital. The square was named «Trafalgar» to commemorate Admiral Nelson’s victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. There is the monument in the centre of the square known as Nelson’s Column. Around the monument there are four bronze bar-reliefs, representing scenes of Nelson’s life and death.
The statue is guarded at the base by four bronze lions. Nelson was killed in the battle but the victory was won. The English consider Admiral Nelson to be a national hero for his victory in the war against Napoleon.
The National Gallery (a great picture museum) is situated on Trafalgar Square. It contains a wonderful collection of works from the British, French, Italian, Dutch and Spanish schools, which existed between the 13th and the 19th centuries.
Scotland Yard is the name of the police headquarters and the police itself.
Fleet Street is associated with British newspapers and is located between Westminster and the City.
► Читайте также другие темы раздела «London /Лондон»:
Тауэр бридж рассказ на английском
Tower Bridge has a long and fascinating history. Built between 1886 and 1894, the Bridge has spent more than a century as London’s defining landmark, an icon of London and the United Kingdom.
Discover the historical events that led to the Bridge’s construction, how Tower Bridge was built, and how it lifts the road for river traffic as well as some of the key and quirky events from the Bridge’s history.
Looking to find out more about the Bridge? Discover more of Tower Bridge’s history when you see inside Tower Bridge.
Choosing the design for a new river crossing
Over 50 designs were submitted to the Committee for consideration, some of which are on display at Tower Bridge. It wasn’t until October 1884 however, that Sir Horace Jones, the City Architect, in collaboration with John Wolfe Barry, offered the chosen design for Tower Bridge as a solution.
Building the Bridge
It took eight years, five major contractors and the relentless labour of 432 construction workers each day to build Tower Bridge under the watchful eye of Sir John Wolfe Barry.
Two massive piers were built on foundations sunk into the riverbed to support the construction, and over 11,000 tons of steel provided the framework for the Towers and Walkways. This framework was clad in Cornish Granite and Portland Stone to protect the underlying steelwork and to give the Bridge a more pleasing appearance.
How it works
When it was built, Tower Bridge was the largest and most sophisticated bascule bridge ever completed (‘bascule’ comes from the French word for ‘seesaw’). These bascules were operated by hydraulics, using steam to power the enormous pumping engines. The energy created was stored in six massive accumulators, meaning that as soon as power was required to lift the Bridge, it was always readily available. The accumulators fed the driving engines, which drove the bascules up and down. Despite the complexity of the system, the bascules only took about a minute to raise to their maximum angle of 86 degrees. Find out more about this process.
Today, the bascules are still operated by hydraulic power, but since 1976 they have been driven by oil and electricity rather than steam. The original pumping engines, accumulators and boilers are now on display within Tower Bridge’s Engine Rooms.